دوره های جدید و شخصیت های تازه سیاسی محلی در جوامع کمتر توسعه یافته

جوامع کمتر توسعه یافته با توجه به عدم موجودیت نظام های سیاسی تعریف شده و با ثبات با داشتن ساختارهای سیاسی مدرن چون احزاب سیاسی با ثبات و پر نفوذ، معمولا با روش های محلی و سنتی و روش های شناخته شده سیاسی محلی رهبری میشود. یکی از این جوامع افغانستان است. در افغانستان امور سیاسی به دو بخش کلی تقسیم میشود: اول، امور سیاسی کلان در سطح فرا ولایتی؛ دوم، امور سیاسی محلی در سطح ولایات یا نسبتا زون. در هردوی این سطوح فعالیت های سیاسی با توجه به نبود جریان های فکری سیاسی ثابت چون احزاب، معمولا اشخاص پرنفوذ که نفوذ شان ناشی از کاریزما شخصیت شان یا استفاده زیرکانه از شرایط و موج سواری اتفاقات و رخدادهای زمان است. در سطح کلان اگرچه در برهه های مدرن تر شاهد شکل گیری احزاب سیاسی بودیم اما این احزاب با وجود  تعقیب اندیشه های خاص چپی، راستی، دینی (میانه رو یا تندرو)، ملی گرایانه و امثالهم اما در حقیقت این افکار موسس داخلی آن بوده تا جریان کلان فکری. اگر بخواهیم خیلی گذرا نگاهی به این موضوع از زمان تاسیس افغانستان مدرن بیندازیم میبینیم که از زمان غازی امان الله خان  تا اواسط دهه ۴۰ و ۵۰ میلادی شخصیت ها جریان سازی موقت را شکل میدادند. امان الله خان در زمان خود افغانستان را به روشی که فکر میکرد باعث ترقی می شود اداره و سازماندهی کرد اما همینکه ضعف از خود نشان داد و عواملی باعث تضعیف حکومت وی شد فردی با اندیشه های کاملا متضاد به جای وی قدرت را گرفت و تمام سیستم که وی تعبیه کرده بود از بین رفت. خیلی زود سیستم حبیب االله کلکانی نیز به سرنوشت امان الله خان دچار شد و این سناریو در زمان نادرخان و ظاهرشاه نیز ادامه داشت. حتی داود خان و تره کی که از دید بسیاری تهداب سیستم کاملا جدید و مدرن برای بار اولا در افغانستان پیاده کردند نیز با مرگ شان سیستم های شان کامل از بین رفت. بعد ها با وجود تاسیس حزب خلق و پرچم که از نگاه فکری احزاب شدیدا سیستمی بودند اما در عمل دیدیم که فقط انتقال دهنده افکار چپی که موسس آن بیان میکرد و خیلی زود با تغییر شخصیت ها نوع اندیشه ها و سیاست های حاکم بر کشور نیز تغییر کرد. این عامل در دوره به قدرت رسیدن احزاب جهادی نیز ادامه داشت و احزاب جهادی قدرت شان با رهبرشان گره خورده بود و هرگز سیستم حزبی شان طوری سازماندهی نشده بود که بعد از مرگ یا خلع قدرت رهبر حزبی فرد دیگری یا افراد دیگری تداوم دهنده آن اندیشه با همان ضریب تداوم وجود نداشت که به نظر من علت اصلی می تواند چند عامل زیر باشد:

    • عدم تربیه حزبی
    • عدم سازماندهی تصمیمگیری جمعی
    • وابستگی شدید اعضای حزب به شخصیت کاریزماتیکی رهبر حزب
    • ترس رهبری حزب از برکناری و کنار زدن افراد توانمند
    • نداشتن سلسله مراتب  اجرایی معقول درون حزبی
    • رقابت های ناآگاهانه درون حزبی
    • تخریب های درون حزبی
    • جناح بندی و جناح گرایی درون حزبی
    • نبود تعامل و تسامع در تصامیم
    • وابستگی های فکری، مالی و سیاسی اعضای حزب به جریان های بیرون حزبی داخلی و خارجی
    • تمایل به ایجاد تغییرات سریع
    • عدم در نظرداشت نیازها و ظرفیت جامعه
    • عدم پیروی از اصول اساسی حزبی مکتوب و مصوب همه اعضای حزب

 

اینها صرف برخی از عوامل اساسی در نبود جریان های حزبی به معنای واقعی حزب در جوامع مدرن است و عوامل متعدد دیگر خصوصا در جامعه افغانستان می تواند دخیل باشد.

در سطح محلی نیز عین این قضیه با این تفاوت که محدوده آن کمتر است اتفاق می افتد. در سطح محلی یعنی ولایات یا دو یا سه ولایت ما شاهد موجودیت اشخاص کاریزماتیک محلی هستیم که تقریبا جریان سیاسی و اتفاقات سیاسی در ولایت را رهبری می کند. این اشخاص معملا فروشنده و معامله گران قدرت های مرکزی با محل می باشند و برای تامین منافع سیاسی و یا اقتصادی خود جریان ها و رخداد های سیاسی محلی را معامله می کنند یا به فروش می رسانند مانند انتخابات، تخریبا برخی افراد با تظاهرات، مخالفت یا موافقت با برخی برنامه های قدرت های مرکزی، یا پرورش اشخاص و قدرتمند جلوه دادن آنها برای مردم محل. این جریان ها و مراکز فردی قدرت در سطوح کوچک تر یعنی ولسوالی و کوچک تر از آن یعنی قریه ها با تغییر نام به ارباب تغییر می کند.

یکی از نکات بسیار مهم در این مدل سیاسی این است که جریان ها در واقع اشخاص هستند و با کنار رفتن یا مرگ یک شخص درواقع جریان سیاسی هم میمیرد یا در حدی از عرصه اصلی قدرت کنار رفته و به حاشیه می رود  که در نتیجه آن افراد جدیدی ظهور می کنند که از خود به مانند افراد قبلی جریان می سازند که قدرت سیاسی را در دست داشته و هرآنچه میخواهد پیش میبرد. معمولا رهبرای سیاسی اینچنینی بنابرعوامل متعدد خصوصا عدم توسعه یافتگی یا دانش سیاسی لازم حتی فزرندان یا از خانواده خود را چنان تربیه یا پرورش و پر و بال نمیدهند که جانشین شایسته برای شان و تداوم دهنده راه شان باشند. دلیل دیگر هم نازپروری و درگیر در لذت های ناشی از قدرت اقتصادی به دست آمده توسط پدران شان هستند. البته باید یادآور شد که این یک عامل عام است و ممکن است موارد خاص محدود مجزا از این وضعیت هم وجود داشته باشد.

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